Update Your Airport's Hangar Leases to Protect Against Non-Aeronautical Uses and Preserve AIP Funding

Under federal law, airport operators that have accepted federal grants or have obligations contained in property deeds for property transferred under laws such as the Surplus Property Act generally may use airport property only for aviation-related purposes unless otherwise approved by the FAA.  Specifically, the Airport and Airway Improvement Act of 1982 (AAIA) (Pub. L. 97–248), as amended and recodified at 49 United States Codes (U.S.C.) 47107(a)(1), and the contractual sponsor assurances require that the airport sponsor make the airport available for aviation use.  Grant Assurance 22, Economic Nondiscrimination, requires the sponsor to make the airport available on reasonable terms without unjust discrimination for aeronautical activities, including aviation services.  Grant Assurance 19, Operation and Maintenance, prohibits an airport sponsor from causing or permitting any activity that would interfere with use of airport property for airport purposes.  In some cases, sponsors who have received property transfers through surplus property and nonsurplus property agreements have similar federal obligations.

With increasing frequency, airports are allowing non-aeronautical storage or uses in hangars intended for aeronautical use, which the FAA has found to interfere with or entirely displace aeronautical use of the hangar.  Case in point: Car and Driver has recently featured articles about the superiority of airport hangars as “garages” for serious car enthusiasts.  This should be a red flag for airports, which stand to lose significant AIP funds for allowing on-airport hangars to lapse into non-aeronautical use.
There is only one solution to this problem, and it is something every federally-obligated airport should do to protect its AIP funds…

Airports should update their hangar leases (including ground leases) to add terms preventing the tenant from engaging in certain non-aeronautical activities and giving the airport leverage in the event that the tenant shifts away from aeronautical use of the hangar.  Conditions to limit non-aeronautical uses and prioritize aeronautical uses should be baked directly into the lease so that the airport can make a good-faith showing that the airport has taken adequate steps to prevent on-airport hangars from lapsing into non-aeronautical use.  There are several ways to accomplish this without immediately displacing current hangar tenants, including by negotiating a limited time for the tenant to engage in non-aeronautical uses (which the FAA will permit in certain situations) and by imposing restrictions that will result in early termination of the lease if an aeronautical tenant becomes a non-aeronautical tenant. 

Although the FAA allows airport sponsors a degree of flexibility in handling hangar tenants using their hangars for non-aeronautical purposes, airport sponsors should take steps as soon as possible to update their leases so that the airport has the power to remedy this issue when remedial action becomes necessary to comply with federal law and protect AIP funds.

FAA Loosens Regulation of Taxes on Aviation Fuel

On November 7, 2014, the Federal Aviation Administration (“FAA”) published its “Final Policy Amendment” (“Amendment”) to its “Policy and Procedures Concerning the Use of Airport Revenue,” first published 15 years ago in the Federal Register at 64 Fed.Reg. 7696, February 16, 1999 (“Revenue Use Policy”).  The Amendment formally adopts FAA’s interpretation of the Federal requirements for use of revenue derived from taxes including sales taxes on aviation fuel imposed by both airport sponsors and governmental agencies, local and State, that are non-airport operators. 

In brief, the FAA concludes that “an airport operator or State government submitting an application under the Airport Improvement Program must provide assurance that revenues from State and local government taxes on aviation fuel will be used for certain aviation-related purposes.”  79 Fed.Reg. 66283.  Predictably, FAA received 25 substantive comments from a diverse group of interested parties, including airport operators, industry and nonprofit associations representing airports, air carriers, business aviation and airport service businesses, air carriers, state government agencies, and private citizens.  For example, in response to the airports’ and governments’ comments that airport sponsors would find it impossible to provide assurance that other governmental agencies would comply with the revenue use statutes for the life of the Airport Improvement Program (“AIP”) grant, and that airports should not be required to agree to a condition compliance with which they have no control, FAA takes the position that Federal statute 49 U.S.C. §§ 47107(b) and 47133 already require this level of control from local proprietors.  This is because “[t]he grant assurances provided by airport sponsors include Grant Assurance 25, which provides, in relevant part: ‘All revenues generated by the airport and any local taxes on aviation fuel established after December 30, 1987, will be expended by it for the capital or operating costs of the airport; the local airport system; or other facilities which are owned and operated by the owner and operator of the airport. . .’” 79 Fed.Reg. 66284.  The FAA further concludes that airport sponsors often have influence on the taxation of aviation activities in their States and localities, and the FAA expects airport sponsors to use that influence to shape State and non-sponsor local taxation to conform to these Federal laws.  Id.  Moreover, FAA asserts its power to pursue enforcement action against non-sponsor entities for the purposes of limiting the use of aviation tax revenues under 49 U.S.C. §§ 46301, 47133 and 47111(f). 

FAA interprets § 46301 as specifically authorizing the imposition of civil penalties for a violation of § 47133 and does not exclude non-sponsors from its coverage.  Moreover, it views 49 U.S.C. § 47111(f) as inclusive of non-sponsor entities because “Congress did not limit FAA’s enforcement authority in 49 U.S.C. § 47111(f) to just airport sponsors, but rather permitted judicial enforcement to restrain ‘any violation’ of chapter 471 – that includes the requirements of § 47133 – by any person for a violation.  ‘Any violation’ encompasses violations by non-sponsors as well as airport sponsors.”  79 Fed.Reg. 66285 [emphasis in original].

Finally, a number of commenters raised the issue of “federalism,” or the distribution of power between the States and Federal government mandated by the United States Constitution, and the Amendment’s lack of compliance with Executive Order 13132 on federalism, on the ground, among others, that the Amendment was not required by statute.  In response, FAA argues that, although a formal federalism analysis is unnecessary due to the clear applicability of the cited statutes, it closely consulted with “States, local governments, political subdivisions, and interested trade groups,” 79 Fed.Reg. 66287, and thereby satisfied any lingering federalism concerns.  
Less predictably, FAA agrees with the majority of commenters that it would be unfair to penalize airport sponsors for taxes imposed by another entity.  79 Fed.Reg. 66284.  Therefore, FAA has also agreed to revise Revenue Use Policy paragraph IV.D.2 to acknowledge the differences in taxes that are and are not controlled by the airport sponsor for purposes of grant compliance.  For taxes within the airport sponsor’s direct control, the airport sponsor must comply with the revenue use requirements of §§ 47107(b) and 47133.  For taxes imposed by non-sponsor States and local governments, however, the airport sponsor is expected to advise those entities of Federal requirements for use of aviation fuel tax revenues, and to take action reasonably within the sponsor’s power to tailor State and local taxation to conform to the requirements of those statutes.  79 Fed.Reg. 66284.  
Perhaps most important, however, FAA will not relinquish its power to pursue enforcement action under 49 U.S.C. §§ 46301 or 47111(f) against a non-sponsor State or local government that violates the revenue use policy or the limitations in 49 U.S.C. § 47133.  Id.  Because of that crucial caveat on FAA’s self-imposed limitation on its own authority, jurisdictions with taxing power that include airport uses should be as aware of FAA’s intentions as the airports themselves, and work closely with the relevant airport during the grant application and project approval processes to ensure that the disposition of resulting tax revenues from aviation fuel do not run afoul of FAA’s enforcement intentions.

Make No Mistake: The Supreme Court's Decision on Obamacare Has No Impact on Applicable Aviation and Airport Law

It has come to our attention that a legal colleague has authored a blog analogizing the United States Supreme Court’s recent decision upholding the Obama Administration’s health care legislation (“Obamacare”), National Federation of Independent Business, et al. v. Sebelius, et al., 567 U.S. ___ (2012), to the Federal statutes preempting state and local control of the regulation of aircraft operations and their free and open access to airports.  The blog attempts to make the case that, because the Court ruled that the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution does not justify requiring all uninsured Americans to purchase health insurance, so the Commerce Clause somehow cannot justify exclusive Federal regulation of the “safety of navigable airspace,” 49 U.S.C. § 40103(a), and airlines “rates, routes and charges,” 49 U.S.C. § 41713(b)(1).  This analysis not only manifestly misapprehends the clear distinction between the two cases, but can also send a damaging message to those who justifiably seek legally supportable means of controlling airport impacts. 

Specifically, the argument that the decision on Obamacare somehow lends support to local regulation of airports turns the Sebelius decision on its head.  In the Obamacare decision, the Court held, regarding the universal mandate to purchase insurance, that the Commerce Clause could not be used as a pretext to force the uninsured, who have not chosen to voluntarily engage in interstate commerce through the purchase of health insurance, to engage in commerce involuntarily by mandating such a purchase. 

In the context of Federal regulation of airports, however, the Commerce Clause has been applied to ensure that voluntary entrants into interstate commerce, i.e., the airlines and passengers, will not be obstructed by a web of disparate local regulations.  In upholding this application of the Commerce Clause to voluntary entrants into the air transportation system, as it has done consistently since the passage of the Federal Aviation Act in 1958, 49 U.S.C. § 40101, et seq., as amended, the Court held:

“The Federal Aviation Act requires a delicate balance between safety and efficiency, [cite omitted], and the protection of persons on the ground. . . The interdependence of these factors requires a uniform and exclusive system of federal regulation if the congressional objectives underlying the Federal Aviation Act are to be fulfilled.” 

City of Burbank v. Lockheed Air Terminal, 411 U.S. 624, 638-639 (1973).

In fact, the airline/airport industry, which developed for the express purpose of facilitating business between states, and the United States and other countries (witness the impact of Lindbergh’s transatlantic flight in 1927), is the quintessential “voluntary” participant that our Founding Fathers authored the Commerce Clause to protect. 

In short, it is important to correct any false impression about the applicability of the Sebelius decision in the airline context, in order to save those readers looking for solutions to the widespread problem of airport impacts from wasting resources attempting to bring the national aviation system under local control.  Such time could be far better spent on the employment of other more effective strategies based on environmental and other statutes for working toward a better balance of commerce and its impacts.

A California Appellate Court Puts a Fence Around Federal Preemption of Airport Safety Standards

On March 20, 2012, in a far reaching opinion, the California Appellate Court for the Second District incurred into the territory usually occupied by the Federal Courts of Appeals, by holding that Federal Aviation Administration (“FAA”) safety standards, published in FAA Advisory Circular 150/5300-13 (“Advisory Circular”) do not preempt state tort law on the standard of care applicable to utilization of an airport’s “Runway Protection Zone” (“RPZ”). 

The case, Sierra Pacific Holdings, Inc. v. County of Ventura, 2012 WL 920322 (Cal.App.2 Dist.)), concerns damage to an aircraft owned by Sierra Pacific Holdings, Inc. (“Sierra”), allegedly caused by a barrier erected within the RPZ at Camarillo Municipal Airport.  The airport, owned and operated by Ventura County (“County”), erected the barrier for the apparent purpose of preventing runway incursions by police vehicles leasing space in part of the RPZ at the airport.  The trial court upheld the County’s motion in limine to exclude evidence of state safety standards relating to “airport design and construction,” on the ground that Federal standards in the Advisory Circular preempt state tort law on the standard of care.  The trial court’s holding was based on the Federal government’s “implied preemption” of safety standards at airports, and, thus, the foreclosure of Sierra’s negligence action based on a dangerous condition of public property under state tort law.  Cal. Gov. Code § 835.  The Appellate Court reversed on the ground that “Congress has not enacted an express preemption provision for FAA safety standards” and, thus, if preemption exists, it must be implied.  The Appellate Court’s decision is flawed for at least two reasons. 

First, the Court ignored an explicit statement of Congressional purpose to preempt state safety standards set forth in 49 U.S.C. § 40103.  In that section, Congress stated unequivocally that “the United States government has exclusive sovereignty of airspace of the United States,” § 40103(a)(1).  Congress delegated that sovereignty to the FAA Administrator, including the right to “prescribe air traffic regulations on the flight of aircraft,” § 40103(b)(2), which are required to include traffic regulations “protecting people and property on the ground” § 40103(b)(2)(B), and, most notably, “preventing collisions between aircraft and land or water vehicles . . .,” § 40103(b)(2)(D) [emphasis added].  As the barrier at issue was erected by the County to exclude vehicles from the RPZ and runway, and, thus, “prevent collision between aircraft and land . . . vehicles” using the runway and/or RPZ, its regulation falls directly within the Federal government’s express preemptive power under § 40103. 

Second, even if for argument’s sake, an implied preemption analysis were required, the Appellate Court misconstrued the scope of Advisory Circular 150/5300-13.  Relying on a portion of the Advisory Circular’s introduction (“[U]se of this AC is mandatory for all projects funded with federal grant monies through the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) and with revenue from the Passenger Facility Charges (PFC) Program.”  Advisory Circular, Introduction, § 3), the Court found that the Advisory Circular only becomes mandatory where Federal funding is accepted for the specific project at issue in the litigation, here the barrier allegedly causing the damage.

The Court failed to recognize, however, that the RPZ and associated safety surfaces were Federally funded with AIP and/or PFCs, and, consequently, are safety surfaces to which the Advisory Circular’s standards apply.  The barrier, far from being a project eligible for Federal funding, is precisely the sort of incursion meant to be excluded by the statute and associated regulations.  Thus, the Advisory Circular is mandatory with respect to the prevention of safety hazards within and upon the RPZ, and, under the Court’s reasoning, should preempt state law with respect to those safety standards. 

In short, and despite its holding, the approach taken by the 2nd District Appellate Court leaves open the question of whether the preemption provision of Federal Aviation Act § 40103 governing the scope of FAA jurisdiction over operation of aircraft and associated airport safety facilities expressly or impliedly preempts state tort law challenges.

Operators Seeking to Close Airports Navigate Difficult Regulatory Shoals

The permanent closure or “deactivation” of an underutilized public use airport has gained increasing traction among revenue starved airport sponsors, as well as disparate responses from affected parties.  Operators seek to save the drain on diminishing budgets; residential communities surrounding the airport hope for relief from the airport’s impacts; and the pilot community sees its access to the dwindling number of general aviation facilities shrinking further.  Whatever the rationale, the operator seeking to close and reuse an airport for non-aviation purposes, that has at any time accepted funds from the Federal Aviation Administration (“FAA”), faces substantial regulatory hurdles and complex procedural requirements.

First, closure of an airport requires a “release” from Federal grant obligations.  A “release” “is defined as the formal written authorization discharging and relinquishing the FAA’s right to enforce an airport’s contractual obligations,” FAA Order 5190.6B, § 22.2 (all references will be to FAA Order 5190.6B).  These may either be a release from a particular grant assurance or Federal contractual obligation, or may affirmatively permit disposal of some or all of the airport’s property, § 22.2.  The airport sponsor’s obligation to the FAA for personal property ends with the physical useful life of the property.  However, airport land acquired with Federal funds is federally obligated in perpetuity, § 22.3.

In considering whether to grant a release, the FAA will generally determine whether the release, including that of an entire airport, will have the “potential to protect, advance or benefit the public interest in aviation,” § 22.4.a.  More specifically, it will determine: “(1) the reasonableness and practicality of the sponsor’s request; (2) the effect of the request on needed aeronautical facilities; (3) the net benefit to civil aviation; (4) the compatibility of the proposals with needs of civil aviation,” § 22.4.a(1)-(4). 

The standards imposed also differ markedly for the disposal of personal and real property.  While the FAA may grant a release that permits the sponsor to abandon, demolish, or convert the personal property before its useful life expires, it will do so only when one of the following applies: (1) the facility is no longer needed for the purpose for which it was developed; (2) normal maintenance will no longer sustain the facility’s serviceability; or (3) the facility requires major reconstruction, rehabilitation, or repair, § 22.15.b.  The FAA may require the sponsor, as a condition of the release, to reimburse the Federal government or reinvest in an improved Airport Improvement Program (“AIP”) eligible project, § 22.15.d. 

The standards for releasing real property are far more restrictive.  FAA consent “shall be granted only if it is determined that the property is not needed for present or foreseeable public airport purposes,” § 22.16.  Most notably, the airport account must receive fair market value compensation for all deletions of airport real property from the airport even if the sponsor does not sell the property or sells the property below fair market value, § 22.16.  In addition, a total release permitting sale or disposal of federally obligated land must specify that the sponsor is obligated to include in any conveyance of a property interest a reservation assuring the continued right of flight and the ability to cause aircraft noise at unlimited levels over the land released, § 22.16.a.  Moreover, the conveyance must also “(1) prohibit the erection of structures or growth of natural objects that would constitute an obstruction to air navigation; [and] (2) prohibit any activity on the land that would interfere with or be a hazard to the flight of aircraft over the land or to and from the airport, or that interferes with air navigation and communications facilities serving the airport,” § 22.16. 

Finally, the requirements of release for the sale or disposal of real property differ according to the date of the Federal grant.  If no grant was received after December 30, 1987, “a sponsor’s request [for release] must assure that the Federal government shall be reimbursed or the Federal share of the net proceeds will be reinvested (a) in the airport, (b) in a replacement airport, or (c) in another operating airport,” § 22.19.a(1).  Where a grant was received after December 30, 1987 for land other than for noise compatibility purposes, an airport sponsor must dispose of the land at fair market value and deposit the Federal share of the sales proceeds into the Trust Fund, § 22.19.b(1).  In other words, for an airport that has received a grant after December 30, 1987, the flexibility on the disposition of any sales proceeds is eliminated. 

Whether an airport can be closed and/or transferred for non-aviation purposes depends almost entirely on the discretion of the FAA Associate Administrator for Airports whose discretion may not be delegated, § 22.20.  It is, therefore, critically important to follow all the procedural steps in obtaining a release, as well as the substantive requirements discussed here.  It should also be noted that where an airport was acquired as Federal surplus property from the military, different and even more restrictive regulation of transfer may exist.

Aviation and Airport Development Updates

A summary review of Aviation and Airport Development related news and information that was made public during the past week. 

  • FAA Administrator Babbitt’s Pilot Fatigue Advisory Committee delivers its recommendationsAn advisory committee on pilot fatigue,convened by Administrator Babbitt, delivered its recommendations to the Federal Aviation Administration late Tuesday, September 1, 2009.  Committee members said the FAA had asked them not to make their recommendations public. Although FAA Administrator Randy Babbitt has promised to vet the recommendations swiftly and turn them into a formal proposal by the FAA, the process will take months to complete.  09/02/09, Denver Post,  http://bit.ly/4wAugf 
  • FAA gives Southwest until December 24, 2009,  to replace unapproved parts. The FAA will require Southwest Airlines to replace unapproved parts associated with hinge fittings for the exhaust gate assembly--and which help protect aircraft flaps from engine heat--by December 24, 2009.  All other unapproved parts made by the same vendor must also be located and disposed of, and results of aircraft inspections must be sent to the FAA daily.  09/01/09, FAA Press Release,  http://bit.ly/5PAe6
  • FAA tells Haines, Alaska, it cannot designate flight paths for helicopters.  Haines Borough, Alaska, is looking to eliminate flight-path restrictions and expand the number of clients that companies are permitted for commercial helicopter and heli-skiing activities.  The FAA has told the borough that it does not have the authority to regulate airspace, but borough leaders respond that they are only designating flight paths as a condition of a borough permit.  08/27/09, Chilkat Valley News, http://bit.ly/CmFqj
  • Connecticut Governor furious about low-flying F-18s. Connecticut Governor Jodi Rell was incensed about a low-flying F-18 when neither the state of Connecticut nor the FAA had received advance notice about its flight.  A spokesman for Naval Air Force Atlantic stated that the aircraft operated in accordance with all FAA-approved visual flight rules and remained within speed and altitude restrictions.  08/29/09, Hartford Courant, http://bit.ly/P4waO.
  • Expansion of Aero Country Airport in McKinney, Texas Causes Problems. McKinney City Council in Texas has approved development on the east side of the Aero Country Airport that could double its size; nearby residents oppose the expansion plans.  City By laws state that the City Council cannot reverse its decision, and Mayor Pro Tem Pete Huff seems unconcerned about homeowners who say they will move if the city does not halt the expansion, citing that the airport is part of the town.  08/27/09, NBCDFW.com, http://bit.ly/3vk14h.
  • FAA Announces $2.5M grant to soundproof homes in Key West.  The Federal Aviation Administration this week approved a $2.5 million grant to soundproof 38 homes impacted by noise at Key West International Airport.  08/29/09, KeysNet.com, http://bit.ly/phcK7
  • FAA gives Miami-Dade $4.2M to extend main runway at Kendall-Tamiami Executive Airport. The FAA gave Miami-Dade $4.2 million to extend the main runway at Kendall-Tamiami Executive Airport, which would allow heavier planes to use the airport to travel to and from destinations in Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. With an extended runway Kendall-Tamiami would be able to receive flights that would normally go to Miami International Airport. 08/28/09, South Florida Business Journal, http://bit.ly/sqmn5.
  • FAA signs ROD for Columbus (OH) Regional Airport Authority’s plan to move Columbus Airport’s runway farther south. Columbus Regional Airport Authority’s plans to relocate Port Columbus International Airport’s runway farther south along with other improvements has been approved by the FAA, contingent upon environmental remediation in the area. The next issue for the airport is a decision from the FAA on the level it will be funding the project; the government’s intent to fund only a smaller portion might require the airport authority to reapply.  08/28/09, Columbus Business First, http://bit.ly/flHYd.
  • NTSB suggests to FAA new altitudes for Hudson Corridor.  The NTSB recommended new altitudes to the FAA for helicopters and planes over the Hudson Corridor to prevent something like the Aug. 8 midair collision that killed nine people from reoccurring. In the past, the FAA has often failed to heed NTSB suggestions, with many outstanding recommendations up to 10-15 years old.  08/27/09, The New York Times, http://bit.ly/rFOqg
  • Connecticut Attorney General Blumenthal says he will take Airspace Redesign fight to Supreme Court.  Connecticut Attorney General Richard Blumenthal is disappointed that the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit has denied an Aug. 19 request to reconsider its refusal to halt the new FAA airspace redesign project. Mr. Blumenthal is preparing an appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court asking it to overturn the ruling and override the FAA, since the FAA used defective data on noise and traffic and failed to follow its own rules and procedures. 08/26/09, acorn-online.com, http://bit.ly/2UUXRs
  • FAA investigates Southwest regarding use of unauthorized parts.  FAA air-safety regulators are investigating unauthorized parts installed on at least 42 Southwest Airlines jets and why the carrier’s maintenance-control procedures failed to identify the problem. The suspect parts do not pose an “immediate safety issue” but planes were temporarily grounded. The controversy exemplifies continuing friction between airlines and federal regulators on how to deal with minor maintenance lapses.  08/26/09, Wall Street Journal, http://bit.ly/4n2Srj.
  • Houston receives $8.8 million in grants from the FAA. The City of Houston Dept. of Aviation received $8.8 million in grants from the FAA to install new state-of-the-art equipment at George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH). The grants, awarded through the FAA’s Airport Improvement Program (AIP) and Voluntary Airport Low Emission (VALE) program, will allow the purchase of equipment and vehicles that are expected to reduce emissions by up to 60 percent. 08/25/09, PRNewswire, http://bit.ly/4hcaM9.


U.S. House Transportation & Infrastructure Committee Holds Hearings on FAA Reauthorization Bill

The U.S. House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure has proposed H.R. 915, the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2009.  Since funding authorization for aviation programs and authorization for taxes and fees that provide revenue for the FAA expired at the end of fiscal year 2007 and revenue collections and FAA programs have been extended several times (until March 31, 2009), this bill is a priority item for the FAA. What follows is a summary of the provisions of the Reauthorization Bill.

Funding & Financing

  • Taxes on aviation users will be increased - Passenger flight segment tax increased to $3.60; International departure and arrival taxes increased to $16.10; Alaska Hawaii facilities tax increased to $8.00.
  • Provides historic funding levels for the FAA’s programs between 2009 and 2012, including $16.2 billion for AIP; $13.4 billion for Facilities and Equipment; $38.9 billion for operations; and $1.35 billion for Research, Engineering and Development.


  • Makes several modifications to the current AIP distribution formula that provide significant increases in AIP funding for smaller airports, which are particularly reliant on AIP for capital financing, as well as more AIP discretionary funding.
  • Increases Passenger Facility Charge from $4.50 to $7.00.  This provision was strongly supported by Jim Elwood, representing the American Association of Airport Executives.

ATC Modernization and NextGen

  • Provides $13.4 billion for the FAA's Facilities and Equipment account.
  • Increases the authority and visibility of the Joint Planning and Development Office.
  • Requires the JPDO to develop a work plan that details, on a year-by-year basis, specific NextGen-related deliverables and milestones.
  • FAA wants to emphasize "infrastructure" improvements at the nations' airports, which includes a full roll-out of NextGen.


  • Includes several safety provisions, such as authorizing additional funds for runway incursion reduction programs and the acquisition and installation of runway status lights.
  • Increases the number of aviation safety inspectors and requires safety inspections of foreign repair stations at least twice a year.
  • Directs FAA to commence a rulemaking to ensure that covered maintenance work on air carrier aircraft is performed by part 145 repair stations or part 121 air carriers.
  • Creates an independent Aviation Safety Whistleblower Investigation Office within the FAA charged with receiving safety complaints and information submitted by both FAA employees and employees of certificated entities.
  • Directs FAA to modify its “customer service initiative” to remove air carriers or other entities regulated by the FAA as “customers.”
  • Adds a two-year “post-service” cooling off period for FAA inspectors and requires principal maintenance inspectors to rotate between airline oversight offices every five years.

Small Communities

  • Increases the total amount authorized for Essential Air Services each year from $127 million to $200 million.
  • Requires 50% of over-flight fees collected in excess of $50 million be dedicated to EAS.
  • Authorizes the Secretary to enter into long-term EAS contracts that would provide more stability for participating air carriers.
  • Reduces local share of AIP projects from 10% to 5% for economically depressed communities.
  • Includes several provisions to mitigate the effects of increases in aviation fuel costs by increasing the existing $200 per passenger subsidy cap.
  • Extends the Small Community Air Service Development Program through fiscal year 2011, at the current authorized funding level of $35 million per year.

Consumer Protections

  • Includes several provisions to ensure passenger needs are met including a mandate that air carriers and airports submit emergency contingency plans and detail in their plans how they allow passengers to deplane following excessive delays.
  • DOT is required to publicize and maintain a hotline for consumer complaints, establish an Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection, expand consumer complaints investigated, and require air carriers to report diverted and canceled flight information monthly.
  • DOT Inspector General is asked to report on the causes of air carrier flight delays and cancellations.

Environmental Provisions

  • Includes several provisions related to the environment, noise mitigation and land use initiatives, including:
    • An environmental mitigation pilot program;
    • The phasing out of noisy Stage II aircraft;
    • An aircraft departure queue management pilot program;
    • Broadened AIP eligibility to include several energy saving terminal projects; and
    • Requirements for the FAA to build sustainable air traffic control facilities.
  • Allows airport operators to reinvest the proceeds from the sale of land that an airport acquired for a noise compatibility purpose, but no longer needs for that purpose, giving priority, in descending order to:
    • Reinvestment in another noise compatibility project;
    • Environmentally-related project
    • Another otherwise-eligible AIP project;
    • Transfer to another public airport for a noise compatibility project; or
    • Payment to the Trust Fund.
  • Provides authorization for the Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions and Noise (“CLEEN”) Engine and Airframe Technology partnership to develop, mature and certify CLEEN engine and airframe technology for aircraft over the next 10 years.


  • Modifies the dispute resolution process for proposed changes to the FAA personnel management system, and replaces it with a new dispute resolution process.
  • Applies the new dispute resolution process to the ongoing dispute between NATCA and the FAA. That is the changes implemented by the FAA on and after July 10, 2005, would be null and void and the parties will be governed by their last mutual agreement.
  • Amends the Railway Labor Act to clarify that employees of an “express carrier” shall only be covered by the RLA if they are employed in a position that is eligible for certification under FAA’s rules and they are actually performing that type of work for the express carrier.
  • Requires an assessment of training programs for controllers and air traffic technicians.
  • Requires that FAA include employee unions as stakeholders in the development and planning for NextGen.
  • Requires the establishment of a Task Force on Air Traffic Control Facility Conditions to determine whether employees are exposed to dangerous environmental conditions in their work place.
  • Requires the Secretary to establish within the FAA a working group to develop criteria and make recommendations for the realignment and consolidation of services and facilities.

Aviation Insurance

  • Extends requirement until September 30, 2012, that the FAA provide U.S. airlines’ aviation insurance from the first dollar of loss at capped premium rates, after which the requirement becomes discretionary until September 30, 2019.
  • After December 31, 2019, such insurance must be provided instead by airline industry-sponsored risk-sharing arrangement approved by the Secretary.

Next Article: Summary of Comments regarding Safety Provisions.

Written Testimonies:

Panel 1:

  • The Honorable Mike Thompson M.C., California 1st District (no written testimony provided)

Panel 2:

Panel 3:

Panel 4:

FAA Proposes to Have Airports Include a List of Based Aircraft On All AIP Grant Applications

On September 8, 2008, the FAA published a notice in the Federal Register (73 Fed.Reg. 52074) that it is proposing to modify the standard grant application requirements that are required of a sponsor of a non-primary airport before receiving a grant under the Airport Improvement Program (AIP).  This modification would require that a sponsor of a nonprimary airport submit a list of the aircraft (both fixed wing and rotary wing) that are based on the airport.  The FAA invites public comments on this proposed modification.  Comments must be submitted on or before October 8, 2008.

FAA believes that this information is necessary because "accurate information on based aircraft is an important element of justification for many proposed AIP projects at nonprimary airports."  In addition, the FAA posits that the information regarding based aircraft "supports the airport's importance in the biennial Report to Congress - The National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS) and in the Airport Master Record." 

FAA defines "based aircraft" as an "operational aircraft that is registered in the FAA Aircraft Registry that is at the airport the majority of the year."  The proposal is that the FAA may require a sponsor for a nonprimary airport to include the "N-number" for each based aircraft or to update the list of based aircraft submitted with the most recent Form 5010 inspection.  Unfortunately, the Notice does not provide definition of how airports are to determine which aircraft are "based aircraft."  The FAA concludes the Notice by stating that it will consider a failure to provide the information "as a factor when considering a request from the airport for discretionary funding."

Comments can be sent or delivered to FAA, Airports Financial Assistance Division, APP-500, Room 619, 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington D.C. 20591.  Comments can also be submitted electronically by clicking here and then clicking on "Send a Comment or Submission."  This will take you to the Regulations.gov page for docket number FAA-2008-0972-0001.